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Benin / Benim

Benin / Benim
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officially the Republic of Benin, is a country in West Africa. It borders Togo to the west, Nigeria to the east and Burkina Faso and Niger to the north; its short coastline to the south leads to the Bight of Benin.
Its size is just over 110000 km2 with a population of almost 8,500,000. Its capital is the Yoruba founded city of Porto-Novo but the seat of government is the Fon city of Cotonou.
A democratic government between 1960 and 1972 was followed by a self-proclaimed "Marxist-Leninist" dictatorship between 1972 and 1991, which was highly repressive and led to economic collapse. Multiparty elections have taken place since 1991. About a third of the population live below the international poverty line of US$1.25 per day. Main income sources are subsistence agriculture and cotton.

Name
During the colonial period and at independence, the country was known as Dahomey. It was renamed on November 30, 1975, to Benin after the body of water on which the country lies, the Bight of Benin, which had in turn been named after the Benin Empire. The country of Benin has no direct connection to Benin City in modern Nigeria, nor to the Benin bronzes.

The new name, Benin, was chosen for its neutrality. Dahomey was the name of the former Kingdom of Dahomey, which covered only the southern third of the present country and therefore did not represent the northwestern sector Atakora nor the kingdom of Borgu, which covered the northeastern third.

History

The Kingdom of Dahomey formed from a mixture of ethnic groups on the Abomey plain. Historians theorized that the insecurity caused by slave trading may have contributed to mass migrations of groups to modern day Abomey, including some Aja, a Gbe people who are believed to have founded the city. Those Aja living in Abomey mingled with the local Fon people, also a Gbe people, creating a new ethnic group known as "Dahomey".

The Gbe peoples are said to be descendents of a number of migrants from Wyo. Gangnihessou, (a member of an Aja dynasty that in the 16th century along with the Aja populace had come from Tado before settling and ruling separately in what is now Abomey, Allada, and Porto Novo), became the first ruler of the Dahomey Kingdom. Dahomey had a military culture aimed at securing and eventually expanding the borders of the small kingdom with its capital at modern day Abomey.

The Dahomey Kingdom was known for its culture and traditions. Young boys were often apprenticed to older soldiers, and taught the kingdom's military customs until they were old enough to join the navy. Dahomey was also famous for instituting an elite female soldier corps, called Ahosi or "our mothers" in the Fongbe language, and known by many Europeans as the Dahomean Amazons. This emphasis on military preparation and achievement earned Dahomey the nickname of "black Sparta" from European observers and 19th century explorers like Sir Richard Burton.

Though the leaders of Dahomey appeared initially to resist the slave trade, it flourished in the region of Dahomey for almost three hundred years (beginning in 1472 with a trade agreement with Portuguese merchants), leading to the area being named "the Slave Coast". Court protocols, which demanded that a portion of war captives from the kingdom's many battles be decapitated, decreased the number of enslaved people exported from the area. The number went from 20,000 per year at the beginning of the seventeenth century to 12000 at the beginning of the 1800s. The decline was partly due to the banning of the trans-Atlantic trade by Britain and other countries. This decline continued until 1885, when the last Portuguese slave ship departed from the coast of the present-day Benin Republic.

By the middle of the nineteenth century, Dahomey started to lose its status as the regional power. This enabled the French to take over the area in 1892. In 1899, the French included the land called Dahomey within the French West Africa colony. In 1958, France granted autonomy to the Republic of Dahomey, and full independence as of August 1, 1960. The president who led them to independence was Hubert Maga.

For the next twelve years, ethnic strife contributed to a period of turbulence. There were several coups and regime changes, with four figures dominating — Hubert Maga, Sourou Apithy, Justin Ahomadegbé and Emile Derlin Zinsou — the first three of them representing a different area and ethnicity of the country. These three agreed to form a presidential council after violence marred the 1970 elections.
On May 7, 1972, Maga turned over power to Ahomadegbe. On October 26, 1972, Lt. Col. Mathieu Kérékou overthrew the ruling triumvirate, becoming president, and stating that the country will not "burden itself by copying foreign ideology, and wants neither Capitalism, Communism, nor Socialism", then on November 30 announcing that the country was officially Marxist, under the control of the Military Council of the Revolution (CNR), which nationalized the petroleum industry and banks. On November 30, 1975, he renamed the country to People's Republic of Benin.
In 1979, the CNR was dissolved, and Kérékou arranged show elections where he was the only allowed candidate. Establishing relations with the People's Republic of China, North Korea, and Libya, he put nearly all businesses and economic activities under state control, causing foreign investment in Benin to dry up. Kérékou attempted to reorganize education, pushing his own aphorisms such as "Poverty is not a fatality", resulting in a mass exodus of teachers, along with a large number of other professionals. The regime financed itself by contracting to take nuclear waste from France.
In 1980, Kérékou converted to Islam and changed his first name to Ahmed, then changed his name back after claiming to be a born-again Christian.
In 1989, riots broke out after the regime did not have money to pay its army. The banking system collapsed. Eventually Kérékou renounced Marxism. A convention forced Kérékou to release political prisoners and arrange elections.
The name of the country was changed to the Republic of Benin on March 1, 1990, once the newly formed country's constitution was complete, after the abolition of Marxism-Leninism in the nation in 1989.

In 1991, Kérékou was defeated by Nicéphore Soglo, and became the first black African president to step down after an election. Kérékou returned to power after winning the 1996 vote. In 2001, a closely fought election resulted in Kérékou winning another term, after which his opponents claimed election irregularities.
Kérékou and former president Soglo did not run in the 2006 elections, as both were barred by the constitution's restrictions on age and total terms of candidates. Kérékou is widely praised[citation needed] for making no effort to change the constitution so that he could remain in office or run again, unlike many African leaders.
On March 5, 2006, an election was held that was considered free and fair. It resulted in a runoff between Yayi Boni and Adrien Houngbédji. The runoff election was held on March 19, and was won by Boni, who assumed office on April 6. The success of the fair multi-party elections in Benin won praise internationally. Benin is considered by a few to be a model democracy in Africa, but with such a short track record that only time will tell.

Geography

Benin, a narrow, north-south strip of land in west Africa, lies between the Equator and the Tropic of Cancer. Benin's latitude ranges from 6°30′N to 12°30′N and its longitude from 1°E to 3°40′E. Benin is bounded by Togo to the west, Burkina Faso and Niger to the north, Nigeria to the east, and the Bight of Benin to the south.
With an area of 112622 km2, Benin extends from the Niger River in the north to the Atlantic Ocean in the south, a distance of 650 km (400 mi). Although the coastline measures 121 km (75 mi) the country measures about 325 km (200 mi) at its widest point.
It is one of the smaller countries in West Africa: eight times smaller than Nigeria, its neighbor to the east. It is, however, twice as large as Togo, its neighbor to the west. A relief map of Benin shows that it has little variation in elevation (average elevation 200 m).

The country can be divided into four areas from the south to the north. The low-lying, sandy, coastal plain (highest elevation 10 m) is, at most, 10 km wide. It is marshy and dotted with lakes and lagoons communicating with the ocean. Behind the coast lies the Guinean forest-savanna mosaic covered plateaus of southern Benin (altitude between 20 m and 200 m) are split by valleys running north to south along the Couffo, Zou, and Oueme Rivers.
Then an area of flat lands dotted with rocky hills whose altitude seldom reaches 400 m extends around Nikki and Save. Finally, a range of mountains extends along the northwest border and into Togo; this is the Atacora, with the highest point, Mont Sokbaro, at 658 m.

Benin has fields of lying fallow, mangroves, and remnants of large sacred forests. In the rest of the country, the savanna is covered with thorny scrubs and dotted with huge baobab trees. Some forests line the banks of rivers. In the north and the northwest of Benin the Reserve du W du Niger and Pendjari National Park attract tourists eager to see elephants, lions, antelopes, hippos, and monkeys.

Benin's climate is hot and humid. Annual rainfall in the coastal area averages 36 cm (14 in)—not particularly high for coastal West Africa. Benin has two rainy and two dry seasons per year. The principal rainy season is from April to late July, with a shorter less intense rainy period from late September to November. The main dry season is from December to April, with a short cooler dry season from late July to early September. Temperatures and humidity are high along the tropical coast. In Cotonou, the average maximum temperature is 31 °C (89 °F); the minimum is 24 °C (75 °F).

Variations in temperature increase when moving north through a savanna and plateau toward the Sahel. A dry wind from the Sahara called the Harmattan blows from December to March. Grass dries up, the vegetation turns reddish brown, and a veil of fine dust hangs over the country, causing the skies to be overcast. It also is the season when farmers burn brush in the fields.

Other Infos

Nome Oficial: Republique du Bénin

Independencia:
August 1, 1960

Superficie
112.622km2

Habitantes: 8.000.000

Capital: Porto-Novo

Idioma e Dialectos:
Aguna [aug] 3,470 (1992 census). Zou Province, Djidja Subprefecture, around village of Agouna. Alternate names: Awuna, Agunaco. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe

Aja [ajg] 588,100 in Benin (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 740,400. Southwestern Benin on the Mono River. Primarily in the Couffo Province (formerly northern half of Mono Province), subprefectures of Aplahoué, Djakotomè, Dogbo, Klouékanmè, Lalo, and Tovinklin; Mono Province (formerly southern part of Mono province) subprefectures of Athiémè, Comè, and Houéyogbé. There are Aja people living in villages mixed with other language groups in the Zou Province, Djidja and Agbangnizoun subprefectures. Aja speakers can be found in Cotonou and many of the towns throughout southern Benin. Also spoken in Togo. Alternate names: Adja, Ajagbe, Hwè. Dialects: Dogbo, Hwe (Ehoue), Tado (Stado, Sado, Tadou), Sikpi, Tala. The Hwe, Sikpi, Tado, and Tala varieties are linguistically closer together with Dogbo being linguistically more distinct. Differences are minor. Lexical similarity 92% with Hwe-Sikpi, 89% with Hwe-Dogbo, Hwe-Tado, and Hwe-Tala. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Aja

Anii [blo] 33,600 in Benin (1992 census, village count). Population total all countries: 45,900. Both sides of the Togo-Benin border. In Benin, the southern part of the Aracora Province, Bassila Subprefecture. Also spoken in Togo. Alternate names: Gisida, Basila, Bassila, Baseca, Winji-Winji, Ouinji-Ouinji. Dialects: Gikolodjya, Gilempla, Giseda, Akpe, Balanka. Close to Akpe of Togo. Lexical similarity 92% between Bassila and Kouloumi, 89% between Bassila and Bodi and 74% between Bassila and Balanka. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Basila-Adele

Anufo [cko] 13,800 in Benin (2002 SIL). A few villages in the Atakora Province, Cobly and Boukombe subprefectures. Alternate names: Chokosi, Chakosi, Chokossi, Tchokossi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern

Baatonum [bba] 460,000 in Benin (1995 R. Jones). Population total all countries: 560,000. Central, north, Borgou Province. Also spoken in Nigeria. Alternate names: Baatonu, Baatombu, Baruba, Bargu, Burgu, Berba, Barba, Bogung, Bargawa, Barganchi, Bariba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Bariba

Biali [beh] 64,500 in Benin (1991). Population total all countries: 66,000. Atakora Province, Materi Subprefecture. There is also a sizable population in the Ouessi Subprefecture in the Borgou Province. Also spoken in Burkina Faso. Alternate names: Bieri, Bjeri, Bjerb, Berba. Dialects: Dassari, Gouande, Materi, Pingou, Tihoun, Tangeta, Porga. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Eastern

Boko [bqc] 70,000 in Benin (1995 R. Jones). Population total all countries: 110,000. Borgu Province. Also spoken in Nigeria. Alternate names: Bokonya, Bokko, Boo, Busa-Boko. Dialects: Closely related languages: Busa-Bisã (Nigeria), Bokobaru (Nigeria), Shanga (Nigeria). Lexical similarity 90% with Busa-Bisã, Bokobaru, Shanga, 86% with Bokobaru, 52% with Kyenga, 51% with Bissa in Burkina Faso. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Busa

Dendi [ddn] 30,000 in Benin (1995 Jones). Population total all countries: 32,050. Atakora and Borgou provinces, along the Niger River, from the Medru River to the Nigeria border, and down to Kandi. Many at Djogou. Most towns in northern Benin. Also spoken in Nigeria. Alternate names: Dandawa. Dialects: Closely related language to Zarma and Songai. They form a dialect cluster. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern

Ditammari [tbz] 20,000 in Benin (1991 UBS). Population total all countries: 47,500. Atakora Province, Boukombe and Natitingou subprefectures. Many now live along the Djougou-Parakou road. Also spoken in Togo. Alternate names: Ditamari, Tamari, "Somba". Dialects: Eastern Ditammari, Western Ditammari (Tamberma). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Eastern

Ede Cabe [cbj] 69,000 (2002 SIL). Borgou Province, Tchaourou Subprefecture; Zou Province, Savè and Ouèssè subprefectures. Alternate names: Caabe, Cabe. Dialects: A member of the Ede language cluster. Lexical similarity 76% with Yoruba (Porto-Novo). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri

Ede Ica [ica] 63,000 (2002 SIL). Zou Province, Bante subprefecture. Alternate names: Ica. Dialects: Ica, Ilodji (Ife). A member of the Ede language cluster. Lexical similarity 83% with Yoruba of Porto-Novo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri

Ede Idaca [idd] 100,000 (2002 SIL). Collines Province (northern half of former Zou Province), Dassa-Zoume and Glazoué subprefectures. Alternate names: Idaca, Idaaca, Idaasa, Idáìtsà. Dialects: One of 8 languages that make up the Ede language cluster (Yorboid) that spreads over southwestern Nigeria, southern and central Benin, and into southern and central Togo. The cluster also includes Ede Cabe, Ede Ica, Ife, Ede Ije, Ede Nago, Kura Ede Nago, Manigri-Kambole Ede Nago. The various people groups seek to maintain their individual identities yet recognize the wider 'Yoruba' community. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri

Ede Ije [ijj] 50,000 (2000 SIL). Plateau Province (northern part of former Oueme Province), subprefectures of Pobe and Ketou. Zou Province, Ouihni Subprefecture. In general, the rural districts between the towns of Ketou and Pobe, extending westward to the Oueme River. There is also a group of Ije villages in the Zou Province, Zogbodome Subprefecture, south of the town of Zogbodome. Alternate names: Holi, Ije. Dialects: A member of the Ede language cluster. 99% comprehension of Yoruba, narrative text. There is a very high comprehension of Yoruba due to the linguistic and cultural closeness. Lexical similarity 85% with Yoruba of Porto-Novo, 91% with Ede Nago. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri

Ede Nago [nqg] 200,000 (2002 SIL). Southeastern Benin, Plateau Province (formerly northern half of Weme Province), Ketou, Pobe, Adja-Ouere, Ifangni, and Sakete subprefectures. Alternate names: Nago, Nagots, Nagot. Dialects: A member of the Ede language cluster. Lexical similarity 87 to 91% with Yoruba of Porto-Novo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekir

Ede Nago, Kura [nqk] 25,000 (2002 SIL). Donga Province (formerly southern half of Atakora Province), Bassila Subprefecture. Aledjo Koura is main center. Alternate names: Nago. Dialects: A member of the Ede language cluster. Lexical similarity 78% with Ife of Tchetti, 76% with Manigri-Kambole Ede Nago, 68% with Yoruba of Porto-Novo, 65% with Ede Nago. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri

Ede Nago, Manigri-Kambolé [xkb] 30,000 in Benin (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 70,000. Donga Province (formerly southern half of Atakora Province), Bassila Subprefecture south and west of town of Bassila, Bante Subprefecture south of Bassila along route RNIE3. Also spoken in Togo. Alternate names: Manigri, Ana. Dialects: A member of the Ede language cluster. Lexical similarity 87% to 91% with Ede Nago, 77% with Yoruba of Porto-Novo, 78% with Ife of Tchetti. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri

Fon [fon] 1,700,000 in Benin (2000 Hoddenbagh). Population total all countries: 1,735,500. Zou Province, Atlantic Province, southern part of the Abomey-Calavi and Ouidah subprefectures, Littoral Province (Cotonou). There are many Fon interspersed with other groups throughout southern Benin and in the towns of northern Benin. Also spoken in Togo. Alternate names: Fo, Fongbe, Fonnu, Fogbe, Dahomeen, Djedji. Dialects: Agbome, Arohun, Gbekon, Kpase. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Fon

Foodo [fod] 24,500 in Benin (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 25,500. Atakora Province, Ouake Subprefecture, Semere town. Also spoken in Ghana. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang

French [fra] 16,700 in Benin (1993 Johnstone). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French

Fulfulde, Borgu [fue] 280,000 in Benin (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 328,200. Atakora and Borgou provinces, villages, and encampments. Bakuure is spoken in the Borgou Region north of N'Dali. Korakuure is spoken in the central and south Borgou Region around Parakou. Djougoure is spoken in northern Benin in the Atacora Region, from Djougou north to the Burkina border, and may extend west into northern Togo. Tchabankeere is spoken in the Zou Region. Also spoken in Nigeria, Togo. Alternate names: Peulh, Peul, Fulbe-Borgu, Benin-Togo Fulfulde. Dialects: Bakuure, Korakuure, Djougoure (Juguure), Tchabankeere (Caabankeere). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fulani-Wolof, Fula, West Central

Fulfulde, Gorgal [fuh] 30,000 in Benin. Northern most part of Borgou provinces, villages and encampments. Alternate names: Peulh, Peul, Fulfulde, Fulfulde Western Niger. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fulani-Wolof, Fula, East Central

Gbe, Ayizo [ayb] 328,000 (2000 SIL). Mono and Atlantique provinces. Alternate names: Ayizo, Ayzo, Ayizo-Gbe. Dialects: Kadagbe (Kada-Gbe), Ayizo-Seto, Ayizo-Tori, Ayizo-Kobe. Close to Fon. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Aja

Gbe, Ci [cib] 25,000 (2002 SIL). Mono Province, Lalo Subprefecture. Alternate names: Ci, Cigbe, Tchi, Ayizo-Ci. Dialects: A member of the Gbe language cluster. Ci is very close linguistically to Fon and is considered to be the same by Ci speakers. Lexical similarity 80% with Fon, 77% with Ayizo, 59% with Aja. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe

Gbe, Defi [gbh] 13,500 (2002 SIL). Southeastern corner of Benin, Oueme Province, Seme-Kpodji Subprefecture between the Oueme River to north, Cotonou-Porto-Novo railroad to west, Gulf of Guinea to south, and into Nigeria in the east. Dialects: A member of the Gbe language cluster. Defi is close linguistically to Gun. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Aj

Gbe, Eastern Xwla [gbx] 80,000 (2002 SIL). Southeastern Benin along coast, Oueme Province, Seme-Kpodji Subprefecture. Alternate names: Phla, Xwla, Offra, Ophra, Houla, Kpla, Pla, Popo. Dialects: A member of the Gbe language cluster. Lexical similarity 90% with Gun, 82% with Fon, 68% with Gen, 68% with Aja. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe

Gbe, Gbesi [gbs] 65,000 (2002 SIL). In the Atlantic Province, several individual and mixed villages, Kpomasse, Alada, and Tori-Bossito subprefectures and in the Mono Province, Bopa Subprefecture along Lake Aheme. Dialects: Gbokpa. A member of the Gbe language cluster. Lexical similarity 91% with Kotafon, 85% with Fon, 73% with Aja, 70% with Gen. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gb

Gbe, Kotafon [kqk] 100,000 (2002 SIL). Mono Province, the main area is the subprefectures of Lokassa and Athieme. There are some villages in the Bopa Subprefecture north and south of Bopa along Lake Aheme. There are also a few Kotafon communities in the Grand Popo Subprefecture, north of Grand-Popo. Alternate names: Ko, Kogbe. Dialects: A member of the Gbe language cluster. Lexical similarity 82% with Gbe Ayizo, 81% with Fon, 69% with Gen, 65% with Aja. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe

Gbe, Maxi [mxl] 66,000 in Benin (1993 Johnstone). Population total all countries: 91,300. Collines Province (formerly northern half of Zou Province), Dassa-Zoume, Savalou, Bante, Glazoue, and Ouessi subprefectures. Also spoken in Togo. Alternate names: Maxi, Maxi-Gbe, Mahi. Dialects: A member of the Gbe language cluster. Lexical similarity 80% with Fon, 68% with Ayizo, 51% with Aja. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Fon

Gbe, Saxwe [sxw] 6,272 (2000 WCD). Mono Province. Alternate names: Saxwe, Saxwe-Gbe. Dialects: Saxwe, Daxe, Se. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe

Gbe, Tofin [tfi] 90,000 (2002 SIL). Atlantique Province, So-Ava Subprefecture. Alternate names: Tofin, Tofingbe, Tofi. Dialects: A member of the Gbe language cluster. Lexical similarity 88% with Gun, 87% with Fon, 82% with Eastern Xwla, 75% with Ayizo, 66% with Gen. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Aja

Gbe, Waci [wci] 110,000 in Benin (1993 Johnstone). Mono Province. Alternate names: Watyu, Waci, Ouatchi, Waci-Gbe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe

Gbe, Weme [wem] 60,000 (1991 L. Vanderaa). Weme and Atlantic provinces. Alternate names: Weme, Weme-Gbe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Aja

Gbe, Western Xwla [xwl] 50,000 in Benin (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 71,000. Southern Benin along the western coast in the Mono Province, Grand-Popo Subprefecture, Atlantique Province, Ouidali Subprefecture, and Littoral Province (Cotonou). Also spoken in Togo. Alternate names: Phla, Xwla, Xwla-Gbe. Dialects: A member of the Gbe language cluster. Lexical similarity 86% with Gun, 84% with Fon, 73% with Gen, 68% with Aja, 90% with Xwela, 88% with Saxwe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe

Gbe, Xwela [xwe] 65,000 (2002 SIL). Mono Province, Come Subprefecture near Lake Aheme, southernmost part of Bopa Subprefecture; Atlantic Province, Kpomasse and Ouidah subprefectures. Alternate names: Phera, Xwela, Xwela-Gba, Houeda, Peda. Dialects: A member of the Gbe language cluster. Lexical similarity 90% with Western Xwla, 85% with Fon, 71% with Gen, 82% with Saxwe, 68% with Aja. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe

Gen [gej] 158,000 in Benin (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Mono and Atlantique provinces. Alternate names: Ge, Gen-Gbe, Mina-Gen, Mina, Guin, Gegbe, Popo. Dialects: Anexo, Agoi, Gen, Gliji. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Mina

Gourmanchéma [gux] 62,000 in Benin (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Northern Benin, Atakora Province, primarly Tanguieta and Kerou subprefectures. There are some individual villages in the Materi and Cobly subprefectures; Borgou Province, Banikoara and Karimama subprefectures. Alternate names: Gourmantche, Gurma, Goulmancema, Gulimancema, Migulimancema. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma

Gun [guw] 243,000 in Benin (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Population total all countries: 501,804. Southeast Benin, Weme Province, Akpro-Misserete, Avrankou, Adjara, and Porto-Novo subprefectures. Also spoken in Nigeria. Alternate names: Alada, Alada-Gbe, Gun-Alada, Gun-Gbe, Goun, Egun, Gu, Gugbe, Seto-Gbe, Toli-Gbe. Dialects: Ajra, Alada, Seto, Toli. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Aja

Hausa [hau] Atacora and Borgou provinces mainly in larger towns and large market villages. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1

Ifè [ife] 80,000 in Benin (1990 SIL). Collines Province (northern part of former Zou Province), Savalou Subprefecture, Tchetti is main center. Alternate names: Baate, Ana, Ana-Ife, Anago, Ede Ife. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri

Kabiyé [kbp] 30,000 in Benin (1991 Vanderaa). Scattered villages in Donga Province (formerly southern half of Atakora Province), Ouake, Djougou, and Bassila subprefectures. Alternate names: Kabre, Kabye, Kabure, Cabrais, Cabrai. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern

Kyenga [tye] 1,000 in Benin (1995 Ross Jones SIM). Alibori Province (formerly northern half of Borgou Province), Segbana Subprefecture, around the village of Tungan Bage. Alternate names: Cenka, Tyenga. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Busa

Lama [las] 69,000 in Benin (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Atakora Province, several villages, Boukombe Subprefecture, northwest of Boukombe and in the Donga Province (formerly southern half of Atakora Province), Djougou and Bassila subprefectures. Alternate names: Lamba, Losso. Dialects: Kande (Kante), Kadjala (Kadjalla). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern

Lukpa [dop] 50,000 in Benin (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Population total all countries: 63,581. West Djougou and border areas, Atakora Province. Primarily around Kémérida. Also spoken in Togo. Alternate names: Lokpa, Logba, Legba, Lugba, Dompago. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern

Mbelime [mql] 24,500 (1991 Vanderaa). Atakora Province, Cobly Subprefecture and 5 villages in the Boukombe Subprefecture. Alternate names: Mbilme, "Niendi", "Niende". Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Eastern

Miyobe [soy] 7,000 in Benin (1991). Population total all countries: 8,700. Atakora Province. Also spoken in Togo. Alternate names: Soruba, Bijobe, Biyobe, Sorouba, Solla, Uyobe, Meyobe, Kayobe, Kuyobe, Sola, Solamba. Dialects: Lexical similarity 27% with Moba, 25% with Tamberma (Ditammari), 47% with Ngangam. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma

Mokole [mkl] 65,500 (1991 L. Vanderaa). Borgou Province, Kandi and villages to the north and east. Alternate names: Mokollé, Mokwale, Monkole, Féri. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri

Nateni [ntm] 66,000 (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Atakora Province. The Natemba are in Toukountouna District, Tayaba in Tanguiéta District, Kuntemba in Kobly, Matiri, and Tanguiéta districts, Okoma in Tanguiéta and Kouandé districts. Tayakou is the center of traditional beliefs and practices. Dialects: Nateni (Natemba, Natimba), Tayari (Tayaba), Kunteni (Kuntemba), Okoni (Okoma). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma

Ngangam [gng] 20,000 in Benin (2002 SIL). Alternate names: Dye, Gamgan. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma

Notre [bly] 1,500 (2002 SIL). Atakora Province, Tanguiéta Subprefecture, northwest, north, and northeast of town of Tanguiéta including Yarka section on the northeast side. Alternate names: Bulba, Nootre, Burusa, Boulba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Nootre

Tchumbuli [bqa] 2,500 (2000 SIL). Departement des Collines, subprefectures of Save and Ouessi, three villages: Okounfo, Edaningbe, and Gbede. Alternate names: Basa, Tshummbuli, Chombulon, Tchombolo. Dialects: Cobecha, Tchumbuli. Lexical similarity 80% with Chumburung. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Akan

Tem [kdh] 50,000 in Benin (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Alternate names: Kotokoli, Cotocoli, Tim, Timu, Tembe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern

Waama [wwa] 50,000 (2000 SIL). 20,000 monolinguals. Atakora Province, at least 20 villages. Natitingou is the cultural center. Several thousand in Cotonou, around Parakou, and in western Nigeria. Alternate names: Yoabu, Yoabou. Dialects: Waama, Tangamma. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Eastern

Yom [pil] 74,000 (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Djougou area, Atakora Province. Alternate names: Pila, Pilapila, Kpilakpila. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Yom-Nawdm

Yoruba [yor] 465,000 in Benin (1993 Johnstone). Porto-Novo and throughout the country in the towns and major villages. Alternate names: Yooba, Yariba, Ede-Yoruba. Dialects: Egba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri

Origem do nome do País :
Named after an old African Empire of Benin, on whose territory modern Benin does not actually lie.
Dahomey (former name): Named after the principal ethnic group of the country.

A Bandeira:
The national flag of Benin was originally adopted in 1959. It was changed upon the accession of the Marxist regime in 1975, but upon the removal of the regime, the old design was reintroduced on August 1, 1990. The colours are the traditional Pan-African colors: green symbolizes hope, yellow symbolizes wealth and red symbolizes courage.

Brasão:
The Coat of Arms of Benin was readopted in 1990 after being replaced in 1975.
At the top of the emblem is the national crest that consists of two horns with corn in the ear and filled with sand. These are reputed to stand for prosperity. Below the crest is a shield that contains the actual coat of arms of Benin.
The shield is broken into four quadrants. The top left quadrant contains a castle in the style of the Somba, representative of the history of Benin. In the top right quadrant, is the Star of Benin, the highest award of the nation. Below this is a ship, that stands for the arrival of Europeans in Benin. In the lower left quadrant is a palm tree.
The shield is supported by a pair of leopards, the national animal of Benin. Below the shield is the motto of Benin (Fellowship, Justice, Work) in French.

Palavra de ordem: "Fellowship, Justice, Labour"

Hino Nacional: L'Aube Nouvelle

Jadis à son appel, nos aïeux sans faiblesse
Ont su avec courage, ardeur, pleins d'allégresse
Livrer au prix du sang des combats éclatants.
Accourez vous aussi, bâtisseurs du présent,
Plus forts dans l'unité, chaqu'jour à la tâche,
Pour la postérité, construisez sans relâche.

CHORUS
Enfants du Bénin, debout!
La liberté d'un cri sonore
Chante aux premiers feux de l'aurore;
Enfants du Bénin, debout!

Quand partout souffle un vent de colère et de haine.
Béninois, sois fier, et d'une âme sereine,
Confiant dans l'avenir, regarde ton drapeau!
Dans le vert tu liras l'espor du renouveau,
De tes aïeux le rouge évoque le courage;
Des plus riches trésors le jaune est le présage.

CHORUS

Tes monts ensoleillés, tes palmiers, ta verdure,
Cher Bénin, partout font ta vive parure.
Ton sol offre à chacun la richesse des fruits.
Bénin, désormais que tes fils tous unis
D'un fraternel élan partagent l'espérance
De te voir à jamais heureux dans l'abondance.

CHORUS


English Translation

Formerly, at her call, our ancestors
Knew how to engage in mighty battles
With strength, courage, ardour, and full of joy, but at the price of blood.
Builders of present, you too, join forces
Each day for the task stronger in unity.
Build without ceasing for posterity.

CHORUS
Children of Benin, arise!
The resounding cry of freedom
Is heard at the first light of dawn,
Children of Benin, arise!

When all around there blows a wind of anger and hate:
Citizen of Benin be proud, and in a calm spirit
Trusting in the future, behold your flag!
In the green you read hope of spring;
The red signifies the courage of your ancestors;
The yellow fortells the greatest treasures.

CHORUS

Beloved Benin, your sunny mountains, palm trees, and green pastures
Show everywhere your brightness;
Your soil offers everyone the richest fruits.
Benin, from henceforth your sons are united
With one brotherly spirit sharing the hope of seeing you
Enjoy abundance and happiness forever.

CHORUS

Internet : www.gouv.bj
www.benintourisme.com

Benim em diferentes idiomas

eng | afr | bre | ces | cor | cym | dan | dsb | est | eus | fao | fin | fur | glv | hau | hrv | hsb | hun | ibo | ina | ita | jav | jnf | lim | lld | mlt | nld | nor | oci | pol | roh | ron | rup | slk | slv | sme | spa | swa | swe | tur | vor | wln | zza: Benin
aze | bos | crh | kaa | mol | slo | tuk | uzb: Benin / Бенин
arg | ast | cat | glg | isl | tet: Benín
deu | ltz | nds: Benin / Benin
fra | lin | nrm: Bénin
kin | run | wol: Bene
ind | msa: Benin / بينين
lav | mlg: Benina
scn | srd: Benìn
bam: Benɛn
cos: Beninu
epo: Benino
frp: Bènin
fry: Benyn
gla: Beinin
gle: Beinin / Beinin
hat: Benen
kmr: Bênîn / Бенин / بێنین
kur: Benîn / بەنین
lat: Beninum
lit: Beninas
por: Benim; Benin
que: Binin
rmy: Benin / बेनिन
smg: Benins
smo: Penini
som: Beniin
sqi: Benini
szl: Byńin
vie: Bê-nanh
vol: Beninän
yor: Ìbúní
abq | alt | bul | che | chm | chv | kbd | kir | kjh | kom | krc | kum | mkd | mon | oss | rus | tyv | udm: Бенин (Benin)
bak | srp | tat: Бенин / Benin
bel: Бенін / Bienin; Бэнін / Benin
kaz: Бенин / Benïn / بەنين
tgk: Бенин / بنین / Benin
ukr: Бенін (Benin)
ara: بينين (Bīnīn); بنين (Binīn / Banīn); بانين (Bānīn); بينان (Bīnān); البنين (al-Binīn); البينين (al-Bīnīn); البينان (al-Bīnān); بنن (Binin)
fas: بنین (Benīn)
prs: بینین (Bēnīn)
pus: بېنين (Benīn)
uig: بېنىن / Bénin / Бенин
urd: بنین (Banīn); بینین (Benīn); بینن (Benan)
div: ބެނިން (Benin)
heb: בנין (Benîn)
lad: בינין / Benin
yid: בענין (Benin)
amh: ቤኒን (Benin)
ell: Μπενίν (Mpenín)
hye: Բենին (Benin)
kat: ბენინი (Benini)
hin: बेनिन (Benin)
ben: বেনিন (Benin)
pan: ਬੇਨੀਨ (Benīn)
kan: ಬೆನಿನ್ (Benin)
mal: ബെനിന് (Benin)
tam: பெனின் (Peṉiṉ)
tel: బెనిన్ (Benin)
zho: 貝寧/贝宁 (Bèiníng)
jpn: ベナン (Benan)
kor: 베넹 (Beneng); 베냉 (Benaeng)
mya: ဘီနင္ (Bʰinĩ)
tha: เบนิน (Bēnin)
khm: បេណាំង (Beṇāṁṅ); ប៊ែនីន (Bænīn)
Date: 2010-03-08 05:33:15

Benin Benim Africa flag bandeiras

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Comments

I am proud to be beninois
isidoregnonhoue 2018-08-01 16:19:22

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