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Mozambique / Mocambique....Former Portuguese Colony

Mozambique / Mocambique....Former Portuguese Colony
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Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique is a country in southeastern Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest.
The area was explored by Vasco da Gama in 1498 and colonized by Portugal in 1505. Mozambique became independent in 1975, to which it became the People's Republic of Mozambique shortly after, and was the scene of an intense civil war lasting from 1977 to 1992. The country was named Moçambique by the Portuguese after the Island of Mozambique, derived from Musa Al Big or Mossa Al Bique or Mussa Ben Mbiki, an Arab trader who first visited the island and later lived there.
Mozambique is a member of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries and the Commonwealth of Nations and an observer of the Francophonie. Mozambique's life expectancy and infant mortality rates are both among the worst ranked in the world due to the excessive malaria carrying mosquitoes. Its Human Development Index is one of the lowest on earth.

History

Early migrations
Between the first and fifth centuries AD, waves of Bantu-speaking people migrated from the west and north through the Zambezi River valley and then gradually into the plateau and coastal areas. They established agricultural communities or societies based on herding cattle. They brought with them the technology for iron making, a metal which they used to make weapons for the conquest of their neighbors. Cities in Mozambique during the Middle Ages (5th to the 16th century) were not sturdily built, so there is little left of many medieval cities such as the trading port Sofala. Nevertheless several Swahili trade ports dotted the coast of the country before the arrival of Arabs and the Portuguese which had been trading with Madagascar and the Far East.
Swahili, Arab and Portuguese rule
When Portuguese explorers reached East Africa in 1498, Swahili and Arabic commercial settlements had existed along the coast and outlying islands for several centuries. From about 1500, Portuguese trading posts and forts displaced the Arabic commercial and military hegemony becaming regular ports of call on the new European sea route to the east.
The voyage of Vasco da Gama around the Cape of Good Hope into the Indian Ocean in 1498 marked the Portuguese entry into trade, politics, and society in the Indian Ocean world. The Portuguese gained control of the Island of Mozambique and the port city of Sofala in the early 16th century, and by the 1530s small groups of Portuguese traders and prospectors penetrated the interior regions seeking gold, where they set up garrisons and trading posts at Sena and Tete on the Zambezi River and tried to gain exclusive control over the gold trade. The Portuguese attempted to legitimize and consolidate their trade and settlement positions through the creation of prazos (land grants) tied to Portuguese settlement and administration. While prazos were originally developed to be held by Portuguese, through intermarriage they became African Portuguese or African Indian centres defended by large African slave armies known as Chikunda. Historically within Mozambique there was slavery. Human beings were bought and sold by African tribal chiefs, Arab traders, and the Portuguese. Many Mozambican slaves were supplied by tribal chiefs who raided warring tribes and sold their captives to the prazeiros.
Although Portuguese influence gradually expanded, its power was limited and exercised through individual settlers and officials who were granted extensive autonomy. The Portuguese were able to wrest much of the coastal trade from Arabs between 1500 and 1700, but, with the Arab seizure of Portugal's key foothold at Fort Jesus on Mombasa Island (now in Kenya) in 1698, the pendulum began to swing in the other direction. As a result, investment lagged while Lisbon devoted itself to the more lucrative trade with India and the Far East and to the colonisation of Brazil. During the 18th and 19th centuries the Mazrui and Omani Arabs reclaimed much of the Indian Ocean trade, forcing the Portuguese to retreat south. Many prazos had declined by the mid-19th century, but several of them survived. During the 19th century other European powers, particularly the British (British South Africa Company) and the French (Madagascar), became increasingly involved in the trade and politics of the region around the Portuguese East African territories.
By the early 20th century the Portuguese had shifted the administration of much of Mozambique to large private companies, like the Mozambique Company, the Zambezia Company and the Niassa Company, controlled and financed mostly by the British, which established railroad lines to neighbouring countries. Although slavery had been legally abolished in Mozambique, at the end of the 19th century the Chartered companies enacted a forced labor policy and supplied cheap – often forced – African labor to the mines and plantations of the nearby British colonies and South Africa. The Zambezia Company, the most profitable chartered company, took over a number of smaller prazeiro holdings, and established military outposts to protect its property. The chartered companies built roads and ports to bring their goods to market including a railroad linking present day Zimbabwe with the Mozambican port of Beira.
Because of their unsatisfactory performance and because of the shift, under the Estado Novo regime of Oliveira Salazar, towards a stronger Portuguese control of Portuguese empire's economy, the companies' concessions were not renewed when they ran out. This was what happened in 1942 with the Mozambique Company, which however continued to operate in the agricultural and commercial sectors as a corporation, and had already happened in 1929 with the termination of the Niassa Company's concession. In 1951, the Portuguese overseas colonies in Africa were rebranded as Overseas Provinces of Portugal.

Independence movement

As communist and anti-colonial ideologies spread out across Africa, many clandestine political movements were established in support of Mozambican independence. These movements claimed that since policies and development plans were primarily designed by the ruling authorities for the benefit of Mozambique's Portuguese population, little attention was paid to Mozambique's tribal integration and the development of its native communities. According to the official guerrilla statements, this affected a majority of the indigenous population who suffered both state-sponsored discrimination and enormous social pressure. Many felt they had received too little opportunity or resources to upgrade their skills and improve their economic and social situation to a degree comparable to that of the Europeans. Statistically, Mozambique's Portuguese whites were indeed wealthier and more skilled than the black indigenous majority. As a response to the guerrilla movement, the Portuguese government from the 1960s and principally the early 1970s, initiated gradual changes with new socioeconomic developments and equalitarian policies for all.
The Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO), initiated a guerrilla campaign against Portuguese rule in September 1964. This conflict, along with the two others already initiated in the other Portuguese colonies of Angola and Portuguese Guinea, became part of the so-called Portuguese Colonial War (1961–1974). From a military standpoint, the Portuguese regular army maintained control of the population centres while the guerrilla forces sought to undermine their influence in rural and tribal areas in the north and west. As part of their response to FRELIMO the Portuguese government began to pay more attention to creating favourable conditions for social development and economic growth.
After 10 years of sporadic warfare and Portugal's return to democracy through a leftist military coup in Lisbon which replaced Portugal's Estado Novo regime for a military junta (the Carnation Revolution of April 1974), FRELIMO took control of the territory. Within a year, most of the 250,000 Portuguese in Mozambique had left – some expelled by the government of the nearly independent territory, some fleeing in fear – and Mozambique became independent from Portugal on June 25, 1975. Within a few years, almost the entire ethnic Portuguese population which had remained at independence had also departed.

Geography and climate

At 309,475 square miles (801,590 km²), Mozambique is the world's 35th-largest country (after Pakistan). It is comparable in size to Turkey.

Mozambique is located on the southeast coast of Africa. It is bound by Swaziland to the south, South Africa to the southwest, Zimbabwe to the west, Zambia and Malawi to the northwest, Tanzania to the north and the Indian Ocean to the east. The country is divided into two topographical regions by the Zambezi River. To the north of the Zambezi River, the narrow coastline moves inland to hills and low plateaus, and further west to rugged highlands, which include the Niassa highlands, Namuli or Shire highlands, Angonia highlands, Tete highlands and the Makonde plateau, covered with miombo woodlands. To the south of the Zambezi River, the lowlands are broader with the Mashonaland plateau and Lebomo mountains located in the deep south.
The country is drained by five principal rivers and several smaller ones with the largest and most important the Zambezi. The country has three lakes, Lake Niassa (or Malawi), Lake Chiuta and Lake Shirwa, all in the north. The major cities are Maputo, Beira, Nampula, Tete, Quelimane, Chimoio, Pemba, Inhambane, Xai-Xai and Lichinga.

Mozambique has a tropical climate with two seasons, a wet season from October to March and a dry season from April to September. Climatic conditions, however, vary depending on altitude. Rainfall is heavy along the coast and decreases in the north and south. Annual precipitation varies from 500 to 900 mm (20 to 35 inches) depending on the region with an average of 590 mm (23 inches). Cyclones are also common during the wet season. Average temperature ranges in Maputo are from 13 to 24 degrees Celsius (55 to 75 degrees Fahrenheit) in July to 22 to 31 degrees Celsius (72 to 88 degrees Fahrenheit) in February.

Other Infos

Oficial Name:
Republica de Mocambique

Independence:
June 25, 1975

Area:
801.590 km2

Inhabitants:
20.071.000

Languages:
Barwe [bwg] 15,000 (1999). Tete Province. Alternate names: Balke, Cibalke. Dialects: Speakers probably have good comprehension of Nyungwe or Sena. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Senga-Sena (N.40), Sena
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Chopi [cce] 800,000 (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Southern coast, north of Limpopo River. Center is Quissico, southern part of Zavala District, approximately 100 km coastal strip between Inharrime and Chidunguela. Alternate names: Shichopi, Copi, Cicopi, Shicopi, Tschopi, Txopi, Txitxopi. Dialects: Copi, Ndonge, Lengue (Lenge, Kilenge), Tonga, Lambwe, Khambani. Many dialects; all inherently intelligible with each other. Lexical similarity 44% with Gitonga. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Chopi (S.60)
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Chuwabu [chw] 786,715 (1997 census). Central coast between Quelimane and the Mlanje Mountains. Alternate names: Chuwabo, Chwabo, Cuwabo, Cuabo, Chuabo, Chichwabo, Cicuabo, Txuwabo, Echuwabo, Echuabo. Dialects: Central Chuwabo, Nyaringa, Marale, Karungu, Maindo. Lexical similarity 78% between Chuwabo of Makusi District and Marrare. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makua (P.30)
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Dema [dmx] 5,000 (2000 Bister). Population displaced during Cabora Bassa Dam construction. Far western Mozambique, just north of Zimbabwe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Shona (S.10)
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Kokola [kzn] Western Zambezia Province. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makua (P.30)
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Koti [eko] 64,200 (1997 Mucanheia). Nampula Province, Angoche District, coastal around Angoche Island; also a community in Nampula City. Alternate names: Coti, Ekoti, Angoche, Angoxe. Dialects: Ekoti, Enatthembo (Sangaje, Esangaje, Esakaji, Esangaji, "Edheidhei", "Etteittei"). A separate language within the Makhuwa group. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makua (P.30)
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Kunda [kdn] 4,929 in Mozambique (2000 WCD). Around confluence of the Luangwe and Zambezi rivers. Alternate names: Chikunda, Cikunda, Chicunda. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Senga-Sena (N.40), Sena
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Lolo [llb] 150,000 (2002 SIL). Western Zambezia Province. Alternate names: Ilolo. Dialects: May be a dialect of Lomwe or Makhuwa. Close to Takwane. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makua (P.30)
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Lomwe [ngl] 1,300,000 (1991). Northeast and central, most of Zambezia Province, southern Nampula Province. The prestige center is Alto Molocue, Zambezia. Alternate names: Ngulu, Ingulu, Nguru, Mihavane, Mihavani, Mihawani, Western Makua, Lomue, Ilomwe, Elomwe, Alomwe, Walomwe, Chilowe, Cilowe, Acilowe. Dialects: Closest to Makhuwa, Chwabo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makua (P.30)
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Maindo [cwb] 20,000 (2003). Micaune, just northeast of Chinde, at the mouth of the Zambezi River. Alternate names: Chwambo. Dialects: Mitange, Badoni. Lexical similarity 84% with Chuabo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makua (P.30)
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Makhuwa [vmw] 2,500,000 (1996). Nampula, south of Meeto area. Alternate names: Central Makhuwa, Makhuwa-Makhuwana, Macua, Emakua, Makua, Makoane, Maquoua, Makhuwwa of Nampula, Emakhuwa. Dialects: Emwaja, Enaharra (Maharra, Nahara, Emathipane), Enyara, Central Makua (Makhuwana, Makuana, Emakhuwana), Empamela (Nampamela), Enlai (Mulai). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makua (P.30)
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Makhuwa-Marrevone [xmc] 420,101 (2000 WCD). Coast of central Delgado Province from Moma to Angoche. Alternate names: Maca, Maka, Coastal Makhuwa, South Maca, Emaka, Marevone, Marrevone. Dialects: Makhuwana (Emakhuwana), Naharra (Enaharra), Enlai, Nampamela (Empamela). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makua (P.30)
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Makhuwa-Meetto [mgh] 800,000 in Mozambique (1997 census). Population total all countries: 1,160,000. Cabo Delgado and Niassa provinces. Also spoken in Tanzania. Alternate names: Meetto, Mêto, Meto, Metto, Emeto, Imeetto, Medo. Dialects: Imeetto has 81% to 88% lexical similarity with Saka, 78% to 82% with Nahara, 78% to 80% with Makua, 66% to 68% with Lomwe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makua (P.30)
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Makhuwa-Moniga [mhm] 200,000 (2003 Kröger). Delgado Province. Alternate names: Emoniga, Moniga, Emakhuwa-Emoniga. Dialects: Lexical similarity 56% with Lomwe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makua (P.30)
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Makhuwa-Saka [xsq] 200,000 (2003 Kröger). Delgado Province. Alternate names: Saaka, Esaaka, Saka, Saanga, Isaanga, Ishanga, Sanga. Dialects: Saka (Esaaka), Rati (Erati). Lexical similarity 81% to 88% with Makhuwa-Meetto, 78% to 80% with Makhuwa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makua (P.30)
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Makhuwa-Shirima [vmk] 500,000 (1996). South of Niassa Province. Alternate names: West Makua, Xirima, Eshirima, Chirima, Shirima, Makhuwa-Niassa, Makhuwa-Xirima, Makhuwa-Exirima. Dialects: Probably not intelligible with the Metto, Makhuwa, or Lomwe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makua (P.30)
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Makonde [kde] 233,358 in Mozambique (1997 census). Population includes 12,000 Ndonde (1980). Northeast Mozambique. Maviha is in Mueda, Mozambique. Alternate names: Chimakonde, Chinimakonde, Cimakonde, Konde, Makonda, Maconde, Shimakonde, Matambwe. Dialects: Vadonde (Donde, Ndonde), Vamwalu (Mwalu), Vamwambe (Mwambe), Vamakonde (Makonde), Maviha (Chimaviha, Kimawiha, Mavia, Mabiha, Mawia). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Yao (P.20)
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Makwe [ymk] 22,000 in Mozambique (2003). Population total all countries: 32,000. Cabo Delgado Province, on the coast from the Tanzania border south to Quionga, Palma, until just south of Olumbe; and in the interior along the Rovuma River until Pundanhar. Also spoken in Tanzania. Alternate names: Kimakwe, Palma, Macue. Dialects: Coastal Makwe (Palma), Interior Makwe. Not inherently intelligible with Swahili. Lexical similarity 60% with Swahili, 57% with Mwani, 48% with Yao. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Swahili (G.40)
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Manyawa [mny] 150,000 (1999). 85% are monolingual in Lugela District. Western Zambezia Province, including Lugela District. Dialects: Close to Takwane. Lexical similarity 69% with Takwane. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makua (P.30)
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Manyika [mxc] 145,331 in Mozambique (2000 WCD). 759,923 Shona in Mozambique (1980 census) probably included Manyika, Ndau, Tewe, and Tawala. Northern half of Manica Province, north of Ndau, west of Tewe. Alternate names: Chimanyika, Manika. Dialects: Bocha (Boka), Bunji, Bvumba, Domba, Guta, Here, Hungwe, Jindwi, Karombe, Nyamuka, Nyatwe, Unyama. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Shona (S.10)
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Marenje [vmr] 75,000 (1997 census). Western Zambezia. Alternate names: Emarendje, Marendje. Dialects: Related to Lolo and Kokola. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makua (P.30)
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Mozambican Sign Language [mzy] In at least the 3 largest cities: Maputo, Beira, and Nampula. Dialects: Some dialectal variation. Standardization efforts are in progress (1999). Not related to or based on Portuguese nor Portuguese Sign Language. Classification: Deaf sign language
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Mwani [wmw] 80,000 (2000). Cabo Delgado Province, on the coast north of Pemba from Arimba to Palma, including Ibo and Mocimboa da Praia, and the offshore Querimba Archipelago. Alternate names: Kimwani, Mwane, Muane, Quimuane, Ibo. Dialects: Wibo (Kiwibo), Kisanga (Kikisanga, Quissanga), Nkojo (Kinkojo), Nsimbwa (Kinsimbwa). Not intelligible with Swahili. Kiwibo is the prestige dialect. Kinsimbwa, the northernmost Mocimboa da Praia dialect is inherently intelligible with others, even though it is the most distinct. Lexical similarity 60% with Swahili, 48% with Yao. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Swahili (G.40)
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Nathembo [nte] 18,000 (1993 Johnstone). Southeastern Nampula Province, just north of Angohe, on the Sangange Peninsula, at Zubairi, Charamatane, Amisse, Mutembua, Namaeca, Namaponda, and up to Mogincual and Khibulani. Alternate names: Sakaji, Esakaji, Sankaji, Sanagage, Sangaji, Theithei. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makua (P.30)
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Ndau [ndc] 1,900,000 in Mozambique (2000 Chebanne). Population total all countries: 2,700,000. South central region, south of Beira in Sofala and Manica Province. Also spoken in Zimbabwe. Alternate names: Chindau, Njao, Ndzawu, Southeast Shona, Sofala. Dialects: Ndau (Cindau), Shanga (Cimashanga, Mashanga, Chichanga, Chixanga, Xanga, Changa, Senji, Chisenji), Danda (Cidanda, Ndanda, Cindanda, Vadanda, Watande), Dondo (Cidondo, Wadondo, Chibabava), Gova (Cigova). Closer to Manyika, and much more divergent from Union Shona. Danda and Ndanda may be the same. Gova in Mozambique is closer to Ndau, but in Zambia and Zimbabwe it is closer to Korekore dialect of Shona. Lexical similarity 92% between Danda and Dondo dialects, 85% between Dondo and Shanga; 74% to 81% between Ndau dialects and Manyika. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Shona (S.10)
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Ngoni [ngo] 35,000 in Mozambique (1989). Central Cabo Delgado Province, around Macuaida in Niassa Province, in northeast Tete Province. Alternate names: Chingoni, Kingoni, Angoni, Kisutu, Sutu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Manda (N.10)
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Nsenga [nse] 141,000 in Mozambique (1993 Johnstone). Alternate names: Chinsenga, Senga. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Senga-Sena (N.40), Senga
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Nyanja [nya] 497,671 in Mozambique (1997 census). Niassa, Zambezia, and Tete provinces. Chewa is in Macanga District, Tete; Ngoni is in Sanga and Lago in Niassa, Angonia in Tete; Nsenga is in Zumbo in Tete; Nyanja is along Lake Niassa in Niassa and Tete. Alternate names: Chinyanja. Dialects: Chewa (Cewa, Chichewa, Cicewa), Ngoni (Cingoni), Nyanja (Cinyanja). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Nyanja (N.30)
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Nyungwe [nyu] 262,455 (1980 census). Central, banks of Zambezi River above the Sena. Alternate names: Chinyungwi, Cinyungwe, Nyongwe, Teta, Tete, Yungwe. Dialects: Close to Sena. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Senga-Sena (N.40), Sena
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Phimbi [phm] 6,000. Central, banks of Zambezi River above the Sena. Alternate names: Pimbi. Dialects: Close to Sena. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Senga-Sena (N.40), Sena
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Portuguese [por] 30,000 in Mozambique (1998 SIL). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Portuguese-Galician
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Ronga [rng] 640,947 in Mozambique (2000 WCD). Population total all countries: 727,565. South of Maputo Province, coastal areas. Also spoken in South Africa. Alternate names: Shironga, Xironga, Gironga. Dialects: Konde, Putru, Kalanga. Partially intelligible with Tsonga and Tswa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Tswa-Ronga (S.50)
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Sena [seh] 876,570 (1997 census). 86,000 Podzo in Mozambique (1993 Johnstone). Northwest, Sofala, Manica, Tete, and Zambezia provinces, lower Zambezi River Region. Alternate names: Cisena, Chisena. Dialects: Caia (Care, Sare, North Sena), Bangwe (South Sena), Rue (Chirue), Gombe, Sangwe, Podzo (Phodzo, Chipodzo, Cipodzo, Puthsu, Shiputhsu), Gorongosa. Different literature needed for Malawi. Close to Nyungwe, Nyanja, Kunda. Lexical similarity 92% between Podzo and Sena-Sare. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Senga-Sena (N.40), Sena
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Swahili [swh] 9,232 in Mozambique (2000 WCD). Northern. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Swahili (G.40)
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Swati [ssw] 731 in Mozambique (1980 census). Alternate names: Swazi, Siswazi, Siswati, Tekela, Tekeza. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Nguni (S.40)
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Takwane [tke] 150,000 (1997 census). Western Zambezia Province. Alternate names: Thakwani. Dialects: Related to Manyawa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makua (P.30)
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Tawara [twl] 50,000 (1997). South of Tete Province, just north of Zimbabwe. Alternate names: Tawala. Dialects: Tawara-Chioco, Tawara-Daque. The northernmost variety related to Korekore. It appears to have been influenced by Nyungwe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Shona (S.10)
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Tewe [twx] 250,000 (2000 Nelimo). Manica Province, Chimoio City and District. Alternate names: Ciute, Chiute, Teve, Vateve, Wateve. Dialects: Considered by many to be a Manyika dialect. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Shona (S.10)
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Tonga [toh] 223,971 (1980 census). South, Inhambane area up to Morrumbane. Alternate names: Inhambane, Shengwe, Bitonga, Tonga-Inhambane. Dialects: Gitonga Gy Khogani, Nyambe (Cinyambe), Sewi (Gisewi). Lexical similarity 44% with Chopi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Chopi (S.60)
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Tsonga [tso] 1,500,000 in Mozambique (1989 UBS). South of Maputo, most of Maputo and Gaza provinces. Alternate names: Shitsonga, Xitsonga, Thonga, Tonga, Gwamba. Dialects: Bila (Vila), Changana (Xichangana, Changa, Shangaan, Hlanganu, Hanganu, Langanu, Shilanganu, Shangana), Jonga (Djonga, Dzonga), Ngwalungu (Shingwalungu). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Tswa-Ronga (S.50)
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Tswa [tsc] 695,212 in Mozambique (1980 census). Southern Region, most of Inhambane Province. Also spoken in South Africa, Zimbabwe. Alternate names: Shitshwa, Kitshwa, Sheetshwa, Xitshwa, Tshwa. Dialects: Hlengwe (Lengwe, Shilengwe, Lhengwe, Makwakwe-Khambana, Khambana-Makwakwe, Khambani), Tshwa (Dzibi-Dzonga, Dzonga-Dzibi, Dzivi, Xidzivi), Mandla, Ndxhonge, Nhayi. Partially intelligible of Ronga and Tsonga. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Tswa-Ronga (S.50)
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Yao [yao] 450,000 in Mozambique (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Niassa Province, south and west of Lake Malawi. Also possibly Zimbabwe. Alternate names: Chiyao, Ciyao, Achawa, Adsawa, Adsoa, Ajawa, Ayawa, Ayo, Djao, Haiao, Hiao, Hyao, Jao, Veiao, Wajao. Dialects: Makale (Cimakale), Massaninga (Cimassaninga), Machinga, Mangochi, Tunduru Yao, Chikonono (Cikonono). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Yao (P.20)
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Zulu [zul] 1,798 in Mozambique (1980 census). Alternate names: Isizulu, Zunda. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Nguni (S.40)

Capital city:
Maputo

Meaning country name:
From the name of the Island of Mozambique, which in turn probably comes from the name of a previous Arab ruler, the sheik Mussa Ben Mbiki.

Description Flag:
The flag of Mozambique was adopted on May 1, 1983. It includes the image of an AK-47 and is the only national flag in the world to feature such a modern rifle.
The flag is based on the flag of the Mozambican Liberation Front (FRELIMO). The FRELIMO flag, used for a brief period after the country gained its independence from Portugal, looks like the current flag but lacking the emblem.
In 2005, a competition was held to design a new flag for Mozambique. 119 entries were received and a winning flag was selected, but to this day the flag remains the same. This came in the context of a drive to create a new crest and anthem for the country. Mozambique's parliamentary opposition would specifically like to see removed from the flag the image of the Kalashnikov assault rifle, which symbolizes the nation's struggle for independence, according to press reports.
This drive to change these national symbols has met great resistance from public opinion.
Flag Symbolism
Green: The riches of the soil
Black: The African continent
Yellow: The mineral riches
White: The peace
Red: The country’s struggle for independence
The Emblem:
Yellow star: The solidarity of the people and the socialistic beliefs of the country
Book: Education
Hoe: Peasants and agriculture
AK-47: The nation’s determination to protect its freedom

Coat of arms:
The coat of arms of Mozambique, which was adopted in 1990, clearly recalls the former socialist government of the country. It shows a gear wheel, bordered by corn stalks and sugarcane. In the middle there is a red sun over a mountain and blue waves, an AK-47 crossed with a hoe, and a book. The wreath is tied with a ribbon bearing the name of the country.
The corn stalk and the sugar cane stand for the agriculture, or rather nature, the cog wheel for the working class, the book for the intelligentsia, the hoe for the peasants, the AK-47 for the struggle for independence of the country, and the red star for socialism. The red sun symbolizes South of Africa and the hope for a better life.

National anthem: Pátria Amada

PÁTRIA AMADA
I
Na memória de África e do Mundo
Pátria bela dos que ousaram lutar
Moçambique, o teu nome é liberdade
O Sol de Junho para sempre brilhará

CORO(2x)
Moçambique nossa terra gloriosa
Pedra a pedra construindo um novo dia
Milhões de braços, uma só força
Oh pátria amada, vamos vencer
II
Povo unido do Rovuma ao Maputo
Colhe os frutos do combate pela paz
Cresce o sonho ondulando na bandeira
E vai lavrando na certeza do amanhã

CORO(2x)
III
Flores brotando do chão do teu suor
Pelos montes, pelos rios, pelo mar
Nós juramos por ti, oh Moçambique
Nenhum tirano nos irá escravizar

CORO(2x)

English Translation
I
In the memory of Africa and the World
Beautiful fatherland of that they had dared to fight
Mozambique, your name is Freedom
The Sun of June forever will shine

Chorus (2x)
Mozambique, our Glorious Land
Rock by rock constructing the new day
Millions of arms in one only force
O Loved fatherland we go to be successful
II
Joined people from Rovuma to Maputo
It harvests the fruits of the combat for the Peace
The dream grows waving in the flag
E goes cultivating in the certainty of tomorrow

Chorus (2x)
III
Flowers sprouting of the soil of your sweat
For mounts, the rivers, the sea
We swear for you, O Mozambique
No tyrant in will go them to enslave

Chorus (2x)

Internet Page: www.govnet.gov.mz
www.mozambique.mz
www.clubofmozambique.com

Mozambique in diferent languages

eng | arg | ast | fra | frp | glg | hau | ina | jnf | nld | que | spa: Mozambique
bre | hrv | hun | ibo | jav | pol | slk | slv | szl | tur | zza: Mozambik
ces | cor | dsb | fao | fin | hsb | nor | sme | tgl | wol: Mosambik
aze | bos | crh | kaa | slo | tuk | uzb: Mozambik / Мозамбик
eus | kin | run | wln: Mozambike
dan | por | swe: Moçambique
deu | ltz | nds: Mosambik / Moſambik
cat | oci: Moçambic
cym | roh: Mosambic
est | vor: Mosambiik
ron | rup: Mozambic
afr: Mosambiek
bam: Mɔzambiki
epo: Mozambiko
fry: Mozambyk
fur: Mozambîc
gla: Mòsaimbic
gle: Mósaimbíc / Mósaimbíc
glv: Yn Vosambeeck
hat: Mozanbik
ind: Mozambik / موزامبيك
isl: Mósambík
ita: Mozambico
kmr: Mozambîk / Мозамбик / مۆزامبیک
kur: Mozambîk / مۆزامبیک
lat: Mozambicum; Mosambica
lav: Mozambika
lin: Mozambíki
lit: Mozambikas
lld: Mozambich
mlg: Mozambika
mlt: Możambik
mol: Mozambic / Мозамбик
msa: Mozambique / موزامبيق
nrm: Mozaumbique
rmy: Mozambiko / मोज़ाम्बिको
scn: Mozambicu
smg: Mozambiks
smo: Mosamepika
som: Musambiig
sot: Mozambiki
sqi: Mozambiku
srd: Mozambighe
ssw: iMozambiki
swa: Msumbiji
tet: Mosambike
vie: Mô-dăm-bích
vol: Mosambikän
zul: iMozambike
abq | alt | bul | che | chm | chv | kbd | kir | kjh | kom | krc | kum | mkd | mon | oss | rus | tyv | udm: Мозамбик (Mozambik)
bak | srp | tat: Мозамбик / Mozambik
bel: Мазамбік / Mazambik
kaz: Мозамбик / Mozambïk / موزامبيك
tgk: Мозамбик / مازمبیک / Mozambik
ukr: Мозамбік (Mozambik)
ara: موزامبيق (Mūzāmbīq); موزمبيق (Mūzambīq); الموزامبيق (al-Mūzāmbīq); الموزمبيق (al-Mūzambīq)
fas: موزامبیک / Mozâmbik
prs: موزمبیک (Mōzambīk)
pus: موزمبيک (Mozambīk); موزامبيک (Mozāmbīk)
uig: موزامبىك / Mozambik / Мозамбик
urd: موزمبیق (Mozambīq)
div: މޮޒަންބީގް (Możanbīg)
heb: מוזמביק (Môzambîq); מוזאמביק (Môzâmbîq)
lad: מוזאמביקי / Mozambike
yid: מאָזאַמביק (Mozambik)
amh: ሞዛምቢክ (Mozambik)
ell: Μοζαμβίκη (Mozamvíkī)
hye: Մոզամբիկ (Mozambik)
kat: მოზამბიკი (Mozambiki)
hin: मोज़ाम्बिक (Mozāmbik)
ben: মোজাম্বিক (Mojāmbik)
pan: ਮੋਜ਼ਾਮਬੀਕ (Mozāmbīk)
kan: ಮೊಜಾಮ್ಬಿಕ್ (Mojāmbik)
mal: മൊസാംബിക് (Mosāṁbik); മൊസാംബിക്ക് (Mosāṁbikk)
tam: மொஸாம்பிக் (Mosāmpik); மொசாம்பிக் (Močāmpik)
tel: మొజాంబిక్ (Mojāṁbik)
zho: 莫桑比克 (Mòsāngbǐkè)
jpn: モザンビーク (Mozanbīku)
kor: 모잠비크 (Mojambikeu)
mya: မုိဇမ္ဘစ္ (Mozãbʰiʿ)
tha: โมซัมบิค (Mōsâmbik); โมซัมบิก (Mōsâmbik)
khm: ម៉ូហ្សាំប៊ិក (Mūhsāṁbik); ម៉ូហ្សំប៉ិក (Mūhsaṁbik)
Date: 2010-03-06 19:14:12

Mozambique Mocambique Africa flag bandeiras

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Biblioteconomia moz 2012-11-27 17:52:13

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